热门搜索:  诺基亚c601论坛

x201i网卡驱动潘建伟等。讨论量子安全通信的实用安全性

左小祖咒在地安门

    正如潘建伟团队目前应邀为国际物理学权威综述期刊《现代物理评论》所撰写的关于量子通信现实安全性的论文中所指出的那样,过去二十年间,国际学术界在现实条件下量子保密通信的安全性上做了大量的研究工作,信息论可证的安全性已经建立起来。王向斌、马雄峰(清华大学)、徐飞虎、张强和潘建伟(中国科学技术大学)等五位量子保密通信领域的科学家共同撰文,为了公众渴望了解量子保密通信现实安全性真实情况的需要,对其做如下介绍。关于量子保密通信现实安全性的讨论王向斌1 马雄峰1 徐飞虎2 张强2 潘建伟2(1.清华大学 2.中国科学院量子信息与量子科技创新研究院,中国科学技术大学)近来,某微信公众号发表了一篇题为“量子加密惊现破绽”的文章,宣称“现有量子加密技术可能隐藏着极为重大的缺陷”。其实该文章最初来源于美国《麻省理工科技评论》的一篇题为“有一种打破量子加密的新方法”的报道,该报道援引了上海交通大学金贤敏研究组的一篇尚未正式发表的工作。此文在微信号发布后,国内很多关心量子保密通信发展的领导和同事都纷纷转来此文询问我们的看法。事实上,我们以往也多次收到量子保密通信安全性的类似询问,但一直未做出答复。这是因为学术界有一个通行的原则:只对经过同行评审并公开发表的学术论文进行评价。但鉴于这篇文章流传较广,引起了公众的关注,为了澄清其中的科学问题,特别是为了让公众能进一步了解量子通信,我们特撰写此文,介绍目前量子信息领域关于量子保密通信现实安全性的学界结论和共识。现有实际量子密码(量子密钥分发)系统主要采用BB84协议,由Bennett和Brassard于1984年提出[1] 。与经典密码体制不同,量子密钥分发的安全性基于量子力学的基本原理。即便窃听者控制了通道线路,量子密钥分发技术也能让空间分离的用户共享安全的密钥。学界将这种安全性称之为“无条件安全”或者“绝对安全”,它指的是有严格数学证明的安全性。20世纪90年代后期至2000年,安全性证明获得突破,BB84协议的严格安全性证明被 Mayers, Lo, Shor-Preskill等人完成[2-4]。后来,量子密钥分发逐步走向实用化研究,出现了一些威胁安全的攻击[5, 6],这并不表示上述安全性证明有问题,而是因为实际量子密钥分发系统中的器件并不完全符合上述(理想)BB84协议的数学模型。归纳起来,针对器件不完美的攻击一共有两大类,即针对发射端--光源的攻击和针对接收端--探测器的攻击。“量子机密惊现破绽”一文援引的实验工作就属于对光源的木马攻击。这类攻击早在二十年前就已经被提出[5],而且其解决方案就正如文章作者宣称的一样[7],加入光隔离器这一标准的光通信器件就可以了。该工作的新颖之处在于,找到了此前其他攻击没有提到的控制光源频率的一种新方案,但其对量子密码的安全性威胁与之前的同类攻击没有区别。尽管该工作可以为量子保密通信的现实安全性研究提供一种新的思路,但不会对现有的量子保密通信系统构成任何威胁。其实,自2000年初开始,科研类和商用类量子加密系统都会引入光隔离器这一标准器件。举例来说,现有的商用诱骗态BB84商用系统中总的隔离度一般为100dB,按照文章中的攻击方案,需要使用约1000瓦的激光反向注入。如此高能量的激光,无论是经典光通信还是量子通信器件都将被破坏,这就相当于直接用激光武器来摧毁通信系统,已经完全不属于通信安全的范畴了。而对光源最具威胁而难以克服的攻击是“光子数分离攻击”[6]。严格执行BB84协议需要理想的单光子源。然而,适用于量子密钥分发的理想单光子源至今仍不存在,实际应用中是用弱相干态光源来替代。虽然弱相干光源大多数情况下发射的是单光子,但仍然存在一定的概率,每次会发射两个甚至多个相同量子态的光子。这时窃听者原理上就可以拿走其中一个光子来获取密钥信息而不被察觉。光子数分离攻击的威胁性在于,不同于木马攻击,这种攻击方法无需窃听者攻入实验室内部,原则上可以在实验室外部通道链路的任何地方实施。若不采用新的理论方法,用户将不得不监控整个通道链路以防止攻击,这将使量子密钥分发失去其“保障通信链路安全”这一最大的优势。事实上,在这个问题被解决之前,国际上许多知名量子通信实验小组甚至不开展量子密钥分发实验。2002年,韩国学者黄元瑛在理论上提出了以诱骗脉冲克服光子数分离攻击的方法[8];2004年,多伦多大学的罗开广、马雄峰等对实用诱骗态协议开展了有益的研究,但未解决实用条件下成码率紧致的下界[9];2004年,华人学者王向斌在《物理评论快报》上提出了可以有效工作于实际系统的诱骗态量子密钥分发协议,解决了现实条件下光子数分离攻击的问题[10];在同期的《物理评论快报》上,罗开广、马雄峰、陈凯等分析了诱骗态方法并给出严格的安全性证明[11]。在这些学者的共同努力下,光子数分离攻击问题在原理上得以解决,即使利用非理想单光子源,同样可以获得与理想单光子源相当的安全性。2006年,中国科技大学潘建伟等组成的联合团队以及美国Los-Alamos国家实验室-NIST联合实验组同时利用诱骗态方案,在实验上将光纤量子通信的安全距离首次突破100 km,解决了光源不完美带来的安全隐患[12-14]。后来,中国科技大学等单位的科研团队甚至把距离拓展到200 km以上。第二类可能存在的安全隐患集中在终端上。终端攻击,本质上并非量子保密通信特有的安全性问题。如同所有经典密码体制一样,用户需要对终端设备进行有效管理和监控。量子密钥分发中对终端的攻击,主要是指探测器攻击,假定窃听者能控制实验室内部探测器效率。代表性的具体攻击办法是,如同Lydersen等[15] 的实验那样,输入强光将探测器“致盲”,即改变探测器的工作状态,使得探测器只对他想要探测到的状态有响应,或者完全控制每台探测器的瞬时效率,从而完全掌握密钥而不被察觉。当然,针对这个攻击,可以采用监控方法防止。因为窃听者需要改变实验室内部探测器属性,用户在这里的监控范围只限于实验室内部的探测器,而无需监控整个通道链路。尽管如此,人们还是会担心由于探测器缺陷而引发更深层的安全性问题,例如如何完全确保监控成功,如何确保使用进口探测器的安全性等。2012年,罗开广等[16] 提出了“测量器件无关的(MDI)”量子密钥分发方案,可以抵御任何针对探测器的攻击,彻底解决了探测器攻击问题。另外,该方法本身也建议结合诱骗态方法,使得量子密钥分发在既不使用理想单光子源又不使用理想探测器的情况下,其安全性与使用了理想器件相当。2013年,潘建伟团队首次实现了结合诱骗态方法的MDI量子密钥分发,后又实现了200 km量子MDI量子密钥分发[17, 18]。至此,主要任务就变成了如何获得有实际意义的成码率。为此,清华大学王向斌小组提出了4强度优化理论方法,大幅提高了MDI方法的实际工作效率[19]。采用此方法,中国科学家联合团队将MDI量子密钥分发的距离突破至404 km [20],并将成码率提高两个数量级,大大推动了MDI量子密钥分发的实用化。总之,虽然现实中量子通信器件并不严格满足理想条件的要求,但是在理论和实验科学家的共同努力之下,量子保密通信的现实安全性正在逼近理想系统。目前学术界普遍认为测量器件无关的量子密钥分发技术,加上自主设计和充分标定的光源可以抵御所有的现实攻击[21, 22]。此外,还有一类协议无需标定光源和探测器,只要能够无漏洞地破坏Bell不等式,即可保证其安全性,这类协议称作“器件无关量子密钥分发协议”[23]。由于该协议对实验系统的要求极为苛刻,目前还没有完整的实验验证,近些年的主要进展集中在理论工作上。由于器件无关量子密钥分发协议并不能带来比BB84协议在原理上更优的安全性,加之实现难度更大,在学术界普遍认为这类协议的实用价值不高。综上所述,正如我们目前应邀为国际物理学权威综述期刊《现代物理评论》所撰写的关于量子通信现实安全性的论文中所指出的那样[24],过去二十年间,国际学术界在现实条件下量子保密通信的安全性上做了大量的研究工作,信息论可证的安全性已经建立起来。中国科学家在这一领域取得了巨大成就,在实用化量子保密通信的研究和应用上创造了多个世界记录,无可争议地处于国际领先地位[25]。令人遗憾的是,某些自媒体在并不具备相关专业知识的情况下,炒作出一个吸引眼球的题目对公众带来误解,对我国的科学研究和自主创新实在是有百害而无一利。鉴于量子保密通信信息论可证的安全性已经成为国际量子信息领域的学界共识,此后,除非出现颠覆性的科学理论,我们将不再对此类问题专门回复和评论。当然,对量子通信感兴趣的读者,可参阅我们撰写的《量子通信问与答》了解更多的情况[26]。参考文献:[1]. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 175–179.[2]. H.-K. Lo, H.-F. Chau, Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances, Science 283, 2050(1999).[3]. P. W. Shor, J. Preskill, Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol, Physical review letters 85, 441 (2000).[4]. D. Mayers, Unconditional security in quantum cryptography, Journal of the ACM (JACM) 48, 351 (2001).[5]. A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023 (2001).[6]. G. Brassard etal., Limitations on practical quantum cryptography, Physical Review Letters 85, 1330 (2000).[7]. 庞晓玲,金贤敏,[声明]攻击是为了让量子密码更加安全,墨子沙龙,2019年3月13日.[8]. W.-Y. Hwang, Quantumkey distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication, Physical Review Letters 91, 057901 (2003).[9]. X. Ma, Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Realistic Devices, Master Report, University of Toronto, June (2004).[10]. X.-B. Wang, Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography, Physical Review Letters 94, 230503 (2005).[11]. H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, K. Chen, Decoy state quantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 94, 230504 (2005).[12]. C.-Z. Peng et al., Experimental long-distancedecoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding, Physical Review Letters 98, 010505 (2007).[13]. D. Rosenberg, et al., Long-distance decoy-statequantum key distribution in optical fiber, Physical Review Letters 98, 010503 (2007).[14]. T. Schmitt-Manderbach et al., Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km, Physical Review Letters 98, 010504 (2007).[15]. L. Lydersen et al., Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination, Nature Photonics 4, 686 (2010).[16]. H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, B. Qi, Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 108, 130503 (2012).[17]. Y. Liu et al.,Experimental measurement-device-independentquantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 111, 130502 (2013).[18]. Y.-L. Tang et al., Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km. Physical Review Letters 113, 190501 (2014).[19]. Y.-H. Zhou, Z.-W. Yu, X.-B. Wang, Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful, Physical Review A 93, 042324 (2016).[20]. H.-L. Yin, etal., Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber, Physical Review Letters 117, 190501 (2016).[21]. H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, Secure quantum key distribution, Nature Photonics 8, 595 (2014).[22]. Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-W. Pan, Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions, Opt.Express 26, 24260 (2018).[23]. D. Mayers, A. C.-C. Yao, Quantum Cryptography with Imperfect Apparatus, in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS’98), p. 503(1998); A. Acín et al., Device-Independent Security of Quantum Cryptography against Collective Attacks, Physical Review Letters 98,230501 (2007).[24]. F. Xu, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, H.-K. Lo, J.-W. Pan, Quantum cryptography with realistic devices, in preparation for Review of Modern Physics (invited in 2018).[25]. 王向斌,量子通信的前沿、理论与实践,《中国工程科学》,第20卷第6期,087-092页 (2018).[26]. 量子通信的问与答, 墨子沙龙,2018年11月14日.相关阅读别慌,找出漏洞会让量子加密更安全攻击是为了让量子密码更加安全作者|庞晓玲,金贤敏(上海交通大学)日前,网上一篇题为《量子加密惊现破绽》的文章,报道了近期上海交大金贤敏教授团队关于量子密码攻防技术方面的研究工作。针对该文章中诸多错误之处,金贤敏教授专门撰文加以澄清。金贤敏教授表示,该工作并非否定量子密钥分发的安全性,恰恰相反,只要在源端增加更高对比度光隔离器就可以解决此漏洞,从而保证量子密钥分发的安全性。声明全文如下:我们注意到麻省理工科技评论(MIT Technology Review)对我们近期完成的量子密码攻防研究工作进行了报道,相关消息的中英文版本都得到了广泛关注。我们感谢麻省理工科技评论对该项研究的关注,与此同时,也发现报道中有一些不够准确和深入的部分。为了避免读者产生误解,我们在此做简要澄清。量子密钥分发(QKD)通过利用量子力学本质的态叠加和不可克隆原理,结合已被Claude Shannon严格证明的一次一密加密算法,理论上可以保证加密通信的绝对安全。然而在实际系统中,由于器件的一些不完美性,系统中仍然有可能存在能够被攻击的物理漏洞。实际上,十多年来,针对量子密钥分发物理漏洞的攻击方案陆续被提出,而提出漏洞的动机是为了构建更安全的通信系统。这是一个漫长的过程,最终目的是构建无论在原理上还是在实际复杂系统条件下都绝对安全的量子通信系统。量子密钥分发实际系统的物理漏洞主要来源于源端和探测端。针对探测端物理漏洞的攻击方案很多,比如时移、时间信息、探测器死时间和探测器控制等。直到近来,测量设备无关的量子密钥分发协议(MDI-QKD)从原理上关闭了所有探测端漏洞,因此这一协议在实际系统中得到广泛使用。源端的漏洞主要是弱相干激光不是完美的单光子,单个脉冲中有多个光子的概率不可忽略,而这会导致通过光子数分离攻击(PNS)方案可以窃取部分信息。值得庆幸的是,之后提出的诱骗态协议通过调制不同强度的光,结合探测端的光子统计检测,又很好地关闭了这一漏洞。在我们近期这个工作中,我们提出了一种新的源端攻击方案:用一束强光反向打入量子密钥分发的光源,通过对光源进行注入锁定去控制和移动发射光的波长,再通过带通滤波进行波长选择,这样,只有与攻击者的激光波长一致的信号光可以通过信道,最后攻击者可以将信号光波长移动回原波长,确保攻击不被发现。这种激光注入锁定的现象早在20世纪60年代就已经被观察到,技术很成熟,所以这一源端漏洞对于实际量子密钥分发系统具有潜在威胁。然而,正如我们公开在预印本arXiv上文章中已经深入讨论了的,我们通过进一步理论分析和实验设计,证明了针对这一漏洞的窃听方案可以通过在源端(我们的实验系统已经内置了30dB隔离度)增加更高对比度光隔离器来解决,从而保证量子密钥分发的安全性。总而言之,我们的文章理论上提出了一种针对量子密钥分发实际系统源端物理漏洞的攻击方案,并通过实验数据验证可行。我们的工作提醒并强调,为了更高的安全性,实际量子密钥分发系统中源端的高对比度的光隔离不仅不可或缺,而且要非常大。目前的实际系统中,有的光源已经采取了高对比度的光隔离,但有的光源还没有。我们的工作并不否认量子密钥分发理论上的绝对安全性,相反正因为量子加密提供了理论上的绝对安全,使得人类追寻了几千年的绝对安全通信几近最终实现。而我们不断的针对实际系统的物理安全漏洞问题的研究正是为了这个绝对安全性变得更加可靠。攻击,是为了让量子密码更加安全、无懈可击。下载APP 阅读本文更深度报道

zheng ru pan jian wei tuan dui mu qian ying yao wei guo ji wu li xue quan wei zong shu qi kan xian dai wu li ping lun suo zhuan xie de guan yu liang zi tong xin xian shi an quan xing de lun wen zhong suo zhi chu de na yang, guo qu er shi nian jian, guo ji xue shu jie zai xian shi tiao jian xia liang zi bao mi tong xin de an quan xing shang zuo le da liang de yan jiu gong zuo, xin xi lun ke zheng de an quan xing yi jing jian li qi lai. wang xiang bin ma xiong feng qing hua da xue xu fei hu zhang qiang he pan jian wei zhong guo ke xue ji shu da xue deng wu wei liang zi bao mi tong xin ling yu de ke xue jia gong tong zhuan wen, wei le gong zhong ke wang liao jie liang zi bao mi tong xin xian shi an quan xing zhen shi qing kuang de xu yao, dui qi zuo ru xia jie shao. guan yu liang zi bao mi tong xin xian shi an quan xing de tao lun wang xiang bin 1 ma xiong feng 1 xu fei hu 2 zhang qiang 2 pan jian wei 2 1. qing hua da xue 2. zhong guo ke xue yuan liang zi xin xi yu liang zi ke ji chuang xin yan jiu yuan, zhong guo ke xue ji shu da xue jin lai, mou wei xin gong zhong hao fa biao le yi pian ti wei" liang zi jia mi jing xian po zhan" de wen zhang, xuan cheng" xian you liang zi jia mi ji shu ke neng yin cang zhe ji wei zhong da de que xian". qi shi gai wen zhang zui chu lai yuan yu mei guo ma sheng li gong ke ji ping lun de yi pian ti wei" you yi zhong da po liang zi jia mi de xin fang fa" de bao dao, gai bao dao yuan yin le shang hai jiao tong da xue jin xian min yan jiu zu de yi pian shang wei zheng shi fa biao de gong zuo. ci wen zai wei xin hao fa bu hou, guo nei hen duo guan xin liang zi bao mi tong xin fa zhan de ling dao he tong shi dou fen fen zhuan lai ci wen xun wen wo men de kan fa. shi shi shang, wo men yi wang ye duo ci shou dao liang zi bao mi tong xin an quan xing de lei si xun wen, dan yi zhi wei zuo chu da fu. zhe shi yin wei xue shu jie you yi ge tong xing de yuan ze: zhi dui jing guo tong hang ping shen bing gong kai fa biao de xue shu lun wen jin xing ping jia. dan jian yu zhe pian wen zhang liu chuan jiao guang, yin qi le gong zhong de guan zhu, wei le cheng qing qi zhong de ke xue wen ti, te bie shi wei le rang gong zhong neng jin yi bu liao jie liang zi tong xin, wo men te zhuan xie ci wen, jie shao mu qian liang zi xin xi ling yu guan yu liang zi bao mi tong xin xian shi an quan xing de xue jie jie lun he gong shi. xian you shi ji liang zi mi ma liang zi mi yao fen fa xi tong zhu yao cai yong BB84 xie yi, you Bennett he Brassard yu 1984 nian ti chu 1 . yu jing dian mi ma ti zhi bu tong, liang zi mi yao fen fa de an quan xing ji yu liang zi li xue de ji ben yuan li. ji bian qie ting zhe kong zhi le tong dao xian lu, liang zi mi yao fen fa ji shu ye neng rang kong jian fen li de yong hu gong xiang an quan de mi yao. xue jie jiang zhe zhong an quan xing cheng zhi wei" wu tiao jian an quan" huo zhe" jue dui an quan", ta zhi de shi you yan ge shu xue zheng ming de an quan xing. 20 shi ji 90 nian dai hou qi zhi 2000 nian, an quan xing zheng ming huo de tu po, BB84 xie yi de yan ge an quan xing zheng ming bei Mayers, Lo, ShorPreskill deng ren wan cheng 24. hou lai, liang zi mi yao fen fa zhu bu zou xiang shi yong hua yan jiu, chu xian le yi xie wei xie an quan de gong ji 5, 6, zhe bing bu biao shi shang shu an quan xing zheng ming you wen ti, er shi yin wei shi ji liang zi mi yao fen fa xi tong zhong de qi jian bing bu wan quan fu he shang shu li xiang BB84 xie yi de shu xue mo xing. gui na qi lai, zhen dui qi jian bu wan mei di gong ji yi gong you liang da lei, ji zhen dui fa she duan guang yuan de gong ji he zhen dui jie shou duan tan ce qi de gong ji." liang zi ji mi jing xian po zhan" yi wen yuan yin de shi yan gong zuo jiu shu yu dui guang yuan de mu ma gong ji. zhe lei gong ji zao zai er shi nian qian jiu yi jing bei ti chu 5, er qie qi jie jue fang an jiu zheng ru wen zhang zuo zhe xuan cheng de yi yang 7, jia ru guang ge li qi zhe yi biao zhun di guang tong xin qi jian jiu ke yi le. gai gong zuo de xin ying zhi chu zai yu, zhao dao le ci qian qi ta gong ji mei you ti dao de kong zhi guang yuan pin lv de yi zhong xin fang an, dan qi dui liang zi mi ma de an quan xing wei xie yu zhi qian de tong lei gong ji mei you qu bie. jin guan gai gong zuo ke yi wei liang zi bao mi tong xin de xian shi an quan xing yan jiu ti gong yi zhong xin de si lu, dan bu hui dui xian you de liang zi bao mi tong xin xi tong gou cheng ren he wei xie. qi shi, zi 2000 nian chu kai shi, ke yan lei he shang yong lei liang zi jia mi xi tong dou hui yin ru guang ge li qi zhe yi biao zhun qi jian. ju li lai shuo, xian you de shang yong you pian tai BB84 shang yong xi tong zhong zong de ge li du yi ban wei 100dB, an zhao wen zhang zhong de gong ji fang an, xu yao shi yong yue 1000 wa de ji guang fan xiang zhu ru. ru ci gao neng liang de ji guang, wu lun shi jing dian guang tong xin hai shi liang zi tong xin qi jian dou jiang bei po huai, zhe jiu xiang dang yu zhi jie yong ji guang wu qi lai cui hui tong xin xi tong, yi jing wan quan bu shu yu tong xin an quan de fan chou le. er dui guang yuan zui ju wei xie er nan yi ke fu de gong ji shi" guang zi shu fen li gong ji" 6. yan ge zhi xing BB84 xie yi xu yao li xiang de dan guang zi yuan. ran er, shi yong yu liang zi mi yao fen fa de li xiang dan guang zi yuan zhi jin reng bu cun zai, shi ji ying yong zhong shi yong ruo xiang gan tai guang yuan lai ti dai. sui ran ruo xiang gan guang yuan da duo shu qing kuang xia fa she di shi dan guang zi, dan reng ran cun zai yi ding de gai lv, mei ci hui fa she liang ge shen zhi duo ge xiang tong liang zi tai de guang zi. zhe shi qie ting zhe yuan li shang jiu ke yi na zou qi zhong yi ge guang zi lai huo qu mi yao xin xi er bu bei cha jue. guang zi shu fen li gong ji de wei xie xing zai yu, bu tong yu mu ma gong ji, zhe zhong gong ji fang fa wu xu qie ting zhe gong ru shi yan shi nei bu, yuan ze shang ke yi zai shi yan shi wai bu tong dao lian lu de ren he di fang shi shi. ruo bu cai yong xin de li lun fang fa, yong hu jiang bu de bu jian kong zheng ge tong dao lian lu yi fang zhi gong ji, zhe jiang shi liang zi mi yao fen fa shi qu qi" bao zhang tong xin lian lu an quan" zhe yi zui da de you shi. shi shi shang, zai zhe ge wen ti bei jie jue zhi qian, guo ji shang xu duo zhi ming liang zi tong xin shi yan xiao zu shen zhi bu kai zhan liang zi mi yao fen fa shi yan. 2002 nian, han guo xue zhe huang yuan ying zai li lun shang ti chu le yi you pian mai chong ke fu guang zi shu fen li gong ji de fang fa 8 2004 nian, duo lun duo da xue de luo kai guang ma xiong feng deng dui shi yong you pian tai xie yi kai zhan le you yi de yan jiu, dan wei jie jue shi yong tiao jian xia cheng ma lv jin zhi de xia jie 9 2004 nian, hua ren xue zhe wang xiang bin zai wu li ping lun kuai bao shang ti chu le ke yi you xiao gong zuo yu shi ji xi tong de you pian tai liang zi mi yao fen fa xie yi, jie jue le xian shi tiao jian xia guang zi shu fen li gong ji de wen ti 10 zai tong qi de wu li ping lun kuai bao shang, luo kai guang ma xiong feng chen kai deng fen xi le you pian tai fang fa bing gei chu yan ge de an quan xing zheng ming 11. zai zhei xie xue zhe de gong tong nu li xia, guang zi shu fen li gong ji wen ti zai yuan li shang de yi jie jue, ji shi li yong fei li xiang dan guang zi yuan, tong yang ke yi huo de yu li xiang dan guang zi yuan xiang dang de an quan xing. 2006 nian, zhong guo ke ji da xue pan jian wei deng zu cheng de lian he tuan dui yi ji mei guo LosAlamos guo jia shi yan shi NIST lian he shi yan zu tong shi li yong you pian tai fang an, zai shi yan shang jiang guang xian liang zi tong xin de an quan ju li shou ci tu po 100 km, jie jue le guang yuan bu wan mei dai lai de an quan yin huan 1214. hou lai, zhong guo ke ji da xue deng dan wei de ke yan tuan dui shen zhi ba ju li tuo zhan dao 200 km yi shang. di er lei ke neng cun zai de an quan yin huan ji zhong zai zhong duan shang. zhong duan gong ji, ben zhi shang bing fei liang zi bao mi tong xin te you de an quan xing wen ti. ru tong suo you jing dian mi ma ti zhi yi yang, yong hu xu yao dui zhong duan she bei jin xing you xiao guan li he jian kong. liang zi mi yao fen fa zhong dui zhong duan di gong ji, zhu yao shi zhi tan ce qi gong ji, jia ding qie ting zhe neng kong zhi shi yan shi nei bu tan ce qi xiao lv. dai biao xing de ju ti gong ji ban fa shi, ru tong Lydersen deng 15 de shi yan na yang, shu ru qiang guang jiang tan ce qi" zhi mang", ji gai bian tan ce qi de gong zuo zhuang tai, shi de tan ce qi zhi dui ta xiang yao tan ce dao de zhuang tai you xiang ying, huo zhe wan quan kong zhi mei tai tan ce qi de shun shi xiao lv, cong er wan quan zhang wo mi yao er bu bei cha jue. dang ran, zhen dui zhe ge gong ji, ke yi cai yong jian kong fang fa fang zhi. yin wei qie ting zhe xu yao gai bian shi yan shi nei bu tan ce qi shu xing, yong hu zai zhe li de jian kong fan wei zhi xian yu shi yan shi nei bu de tan ce qi, er wu xu jian kong zheng ge tong dao lian lu. jin guan ru ci, ren men hai shi hui dan xin you yu tan ce qi que xian er yin fa geng shen ceng de an quan xing wen ti, li ru ru he wan quan que bao jian kong cheng gong, ru he que bao shi yong jin kou tan ce qi de an quan xing deng. 2012 nian, luo kai guang deng 16 ti chu le" ce liang qi jian wu guan de MDI" liang zi mi yao fen fa fang an, ke yi di yu ren he zhen dui tan ce qi de gong ji, che di jie jue le tan ce qi gong ji wen ti. ling wai, gai fang fa ben shen ye jian yi jie he you pian tai fang fa, shi de liang zi mi yao fen fa zai ji bu shi yong li xiang dan guang zi yuan you bu shi yong li xiang tan ce qi de qing kuang xia, qi an quan xing yu shi yong le li xiang qi jian xiang dang. 2013 nian, pan jian wei tuan dui shou ci shi xian liao jie he you pian tai fang fa de MDI liang zi mi yao fen fa, hou you shi xian le 200 km liang zi MDI liang zi mi yao fen fa 17, 18. zhi ci, zhu yao ren wu jiu bian cheng liao ru he huo de you shi ji yi yi de cheng ma lv. wei ci, qing hua da xue wang xiang bin xiao zu ti chu le 4 qiang du you hua li lun fang fa, da fu ti gao le MDI fang fa de shi ji gong zuo xiao lv 19. cai yong ci fang fa, zhong guo ke xue jia lian he tuan dui jiang MDI liang zi mi yao fen fa de ju li tu po zhi 404 km 20, bing jiang cheng ma lv ti gao liang ge shu liang ji, da da tui dong le MDI liang zi mi yao fen fa de shi yong hua. zong zhi, sui ran xian shi zhong liang zi tong xin qi jian bing bu yan ge man zu li xiang tiao jian de yao qiu, dan shi zai li lun he shi yan ke xue jia de gong tong nu li zhi xia, liang zi bao mi tong xin de xian shi an quan xing zheng zai bi jin li xiang xi tong. mu qian xue shu jie pu bian ren wei ce liang qi jian wu guan de liang zi mi yao fen fa ji shu, jia shang zi zhu she ji he chong fen biao ding de guang yuan ke yi di yu suo you de xian shi gong ji 21, 22. ci wai, hai you yi lei xie yi wu xu biao ding guang yuan he tan ce qi, zhi yao neng gou wu lou dong di po huai Bell bu deng shi, ji ke bao zheng qi an quan xing, zhe lei xie yi cheng zuo" qi jian wu guan liang zi mi yao fen fa xie yi" 23. you yu gai xie yi dui shi yan xi tong de yao qiu ji wei ke ke, mu qian hai mei you wan zheng de shi yan yan zheng, jin xie nian de zhu yao jin zhan ji zhong zai li lun gong zuo shang. you yu qi jian wu guan liang zi mi yao fen fa xie yi bing bu neng dai lai bi BB84 xie yi zai yuan li shang geng you de an quan xing, jia zhi shi xian nan du geng da, zai xue shu jie pu bian ren wei zhe lei xie yi de shi yong jia zhi bu gao. zong shang suo shu, zheng ru wo men mu qian ying yao wei guo ji wu li xue quan wei zong shu qi kan xian dai wu li ping lun suo zhuan xie de guan yu liang zi tong xin xian shi an quan xing de lun wen zhong suo zhi chu de na yang 24, guo qu er shi nian jian, guo ji xue shu jie zai xian shi tiao jian xia liang zi bao mi tong xin de an quan xing shang zuo le da liang de yan jiu gong zuo, xin xi lun ke zheng de an quan xing yi jing jian li qi lai. zhong guo ke xue jia zai zhe yi ling yu qu de le ju da cheng jiu, zai shi yong hua liang zi bao mi tong xin de yan jiu he ying yong shang chuang zao le duo ge shi jie ji lu, wu ke zheng yi di chu yu guo ji ling xian di wei 25. ling ren yi han de shi, mou xie zi mei ti zai bing bu ju bei xiang guan zhuan ye zhi shi de qing kuang xia, chao zuo chu yi ge xi yin yan qiu de ti mu dui gong zhong dai lai wu jie, dui wo guo de ke xue yan jiu he zi zhu chuang xin shi zai shi you bai hai er wu yi li. jian yu liang zi bao mi tong xin xin xi lun ke zheng de an quan xing yi jing cheng wei guo ji liang zi xin xi ling yu de xue jie gong shi, ci hou, chu fei chu xian dian fu xing de ke xue li lun, wo men jiang bu zai dui ci lei wen ti zhuan men hui fu he ping lun. dang ran, dui liang zi tong xin gan xing qu de du zhe, ke can yue wo men zhuan xie de liang zi tong xin wen yu da liao jie geng duo de qing kuang 26. can kao wen xian: 1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India IEEE, New York, 1984, pp. 175 179. 2. H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances, Science 283, 2050 1999. 3. P. W. Shor, J. Preskill, Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol, Physical review letters 85, 441 2000. 4. D. Mayers, Unconditional security in quantum cryptography, Journal of the ACM JACM 48, 351 2001. 5. A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, D. R. Hjelme, Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023 2001. 6. G. Brassard etal., Limitations on practical quantum cryptography, Physical Review Letters 85, 1330 2000. 7. pang xiao ling, jin xian min, sheng ming gong ji shi wei le rang liang zi mi ma geng jia an quan, mo zi sha long, 2019 nian 3 yue 13 ri. 8. W. Y. Hwang, Quantumkey distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication, Physical Review Letters 91, 057901 2003. 9. X. Ma, Security of Quantum Key Distribution with Realistic Devices, Master Report, University of Toronto, June 2004. 10. X. B. Wang, Beating the photonnumbersplitting attack in practical quantum cryptography, Physical Review Letters 94, 230503 2005. 11. H. K. Lo, X. Ma, K. Chen, Decoy state quantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 94, 230504 2005. 12. C. Z. Peng et al., Experimental longdistancedecoystate quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding, Physical Review Letters 98, 010505 2007. 13. D. Rosenberg, et al., Longdistance decoystatequantum key distribution in optical fiber, Physical Review Letters 98, 010503 2007. 14. T. SchmittManderbach et al., Experimental demonstration of freespace decoystate quantum key distribution over 144 km, Physical Review Letters 98, 010504 2007. 15. L. Lydersen et al., Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination, Nature Photonics 4, 686 2010. 16. H. K. Lo, M. Curty, B. Qi, Measurementdeviceindependent quantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 108, 130503 2012. 17. Y. Liu et al., Experimental measurementdeviceindependentquantum key distribution, Physical Review Letters 111, 130502 2013. 18. Y. L. Tang et al., Measurementdeviceindependent quantum key distribution over 200 km. Physical Review Letters 113, 190501 2014. 19. Y. H. Zhou, Z. W. Yu, X. B. Wang, Making the decoystate measurementdeviceindependent quantum key distribution practically useful, Physical Review A 93, 042324 2016. 20. H. L. Yin, etal., Measurementdeviceindependent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber, Physical Review Letters 117, 190501 2016. 21. H. K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, Secure quantum key distribution, Nature Photonics 8, 595 2014. 22. Q. Zhang, F. Xu, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. W. Pan, Large scale quantum key distribution: challenges and solutions, Opt. Express 26, 24260 2018. 23. D. Mayers, A. C. C. Yao, Quantum Cryptography with Imperfect Apparatus, in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science FOCS' 98, p. 503 1998 A. Ac n et al., DeviceIndependent Security of Quantum Cryptography against Collective Attacks, Physical Review Letters 98, 230501 2007. 24. F. Xu, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, H. K. Lo, J. W. Pan, Quantum cryptography with realistic devices, in preparation for Review of Modern Physics invited in 2018. 25. wang xiang bin, liang zi tong xin de qian yan li lun yu shi jian, zhong guo gong cheng ke xue, di 20 juan di 6 qi, 087092 ye 2018. 26. liang zi tong xin de wen yu da, mo zi sha long, 2018 nian 11 yue 14 ri. xiang guan yue du bie huang, zhao chu lou dong hui rang liang zi jia mi geng an quan gong ji shi wei le rang liang zi mi ma geng jia an quan zuo zhe pang xiao ling, jin xian min shang hai jiao tong da xue ri qian, wang shang yi pian ti wei liang zi jia mi jing xian po zhan de wen zhang, bao dao le jin qi shang hai jiao da jin xian min jiao shou tuan dui guan yu liang zi mi ma gong fang ji shu fang mian di yan jiu gong zuo. zhen dui gai wen zhang zhong zhu duo cuo wu zhi chu, jin xian min jiao shou zhuan men zhuan wen jia yi cheng qing. jin xian min jiao shou biao shi, gai gong zuo bing fei fou ding liang zi mi yao fen fa de an quan xing, qia qia xiang fan, zhi yao zai yuan duan zeng jia geng gao dui bi du guang ge li qi jiu ke yi jie jue ci lou dong, cong er bao zheng liang zi mi yao fen fa de an quan xing. sheng ming quan wen ru xia: wo men zhu yi dao ma sheng li gong ke ji ping lun MIT Technology Review dui wo men jin qi wan cheng de liang zi mi ma gong fang yan jiu gong zuo jin xing le bao dao, xiang guan xiao xi de zhong ying wen ban ben dou de dao le guang fan guan zhu. wo men gan xie ma sheng li gong ke ji ping lun dui gai xiang yan jiu de guan zhu, yu ci tong shi, ye fa xian bao dao zhong you yi xie bu gou zhun que he shen ru de bu fen. wei le bi mian du zhe chan sheng wu jie, wo men zai ci zuo jian yao cheng qing. liang zi mi yao fen fa QKD tong guo li yong liang zi li xue ben zhi di tai die jia he bu ke ke long yuan li, jie he yi bei Claude Shannon yan ge zheng ming de yi ci yi mi jia mi suan fa, li lun shang ke yi bao zheng jia mi tong xin de jue dui an quan. ran er zai shi ji xi tong zhong, you yu qi jian de yi xie bu wan mei xing, xi tong zhong reng ran you ke neng cun zai neng gou bei gong ji de wu li lou dong. shi ji shang, shi duo nian lai, zhen dui liang zi mi yao fen fa wu li lou dong de gong ji fang an lu xu bei ti chu, er ti chu lou dong de dong ji shi wei le gou jian geng an quan de tong xin xi tong. zhe shi yi ge man chang de guo cheng, zui zhong mu di shi gou jian wu lun zai yuan li shang hai shi zai shi ji fu za xi tong tiao jian xia du jue dui an quan de liang zi tong xin xi tong. liang zi mi yao fen fa shi ji xi tong de wu li lou dong zhu yao lai yuan yu yuan duan he tan ce duan. zhen dui tan ce duan wu li lou dong de gong ji fang an hen duo, bi ru shi yi shi jian xin xi tan ce qi si shi jian he tan ce qi kong zhi deng. zhi dao jin lai, ce liang she bei wu guan de liang zi mi yao fen fa xie yi MDIQKD cong yuan li shang guan bi le suo you tan ce duan lou dong, yin ci zhe yi xie yi zai shi ji xi tong zhong de dao guang fan shi yong. yuan duan di lou dong zhu yao shi ruo xiang gan ji guang bu shi wan mei di dan guang zi, dan ge mai chong zhong you duo ge guang zi de gai lv bu ke hu lue, er zhe hui dao zhi tong guo guang zi shu fen li gong ji PNS fang an ke yi qie qu bu fen xin xi. zhi de qing xing de shi, zhi hou ti chu de you pian tai xie yi tong guo tiao zhi bu tong qiang du de guang, jie he tan ce duan di guang zi tong ji jian ce, you hen hao di guan bi le zhe yi lou dong. zai wo men jin qi zhe ge gong zuo zhong, wo men ti chu le yi zhong xin de yuan duan gong ji fang an: yong yi shu qiang guang fan xiang da ru liang zi mi yao fen fa de guang yuan, tong guo dui guang yuan jin xing zhu ru suo ding qu kong zhi he yi dong fa she guang de bo chang, zai tong guo dai tong lv bo jin xing bo chang xuan ze, zhe yang, zhi you yu gong ji zhe de ji guang bo chang yi zhi de xin hao guang ke yi tong guo xin dao, zui hou gong ji zhe ke yi jiang xin hao guang bo chang yi dong hui yuan bo chang, que bao gong ji bu bei fa xian. zhe zhong ji guang zhu ru suo ding de xian xiang zao zai 20 shi ji 60 nian dai jiu yi jing bei guan cha dao, ji shu hen cheng shu, suo yi zhe yi yuan duan lou dong dui yu shi ji liang zi mi yao fen fa xi tong ju you qian zai wei xie. ran er, zheng ru wo men gong kai zai yu yin ben arXiv shang wen zhang zhong yi jing shen ru tao lun le de, wo men tong guo jin yi bu li lun fen xi he shi yan she ji, zheng ming liao zhen dui zhe yi lou dong de qie ting fang an ke yi tong guo zai yuan duan wo men de shi yan xi tong yi jing nei zhi le 30dB ge li du zeng jia geng gao dui bi du guang ge li qi lai jie jue, cong er bao zheng liang zi mi yao fen fa de an quan xing. zong er yan zhi, wo men de wen zhang li lun shang ti chu le yi zhong zhen dui liang zi mi yao fen fa shi ji xi tong yuan duan wu li lou dong de gong ji fang an, bing tong guo shi yan shu ju yan zheng ke xing. wo men de gong zuo ti xing bing qiang diao, wei le geng gao de an quan xing, shi ji liang zi mi yao fen fa xi tong zhong yuan duan di gao dui bi du de guang ge li bu jin bu ke huo que, er qie yao fei chang da. mu qian de shi ji xi tong zhong, you de guang yuan yi jing cai qu le gao dui bi du de guang ge li, dan you de guang yuan hai mei you. wo men de gong zuo bing bu fou ren liang zi mi yao fen fa li lun shang de jue dui an quan xing, xiang fan zheng yin wei liang zi jia mi ti gong le li lun shang de jue dui an quan, shi de ren lei zhui xun le ji qian nian de jue dui an quan tong xin ji jin zui zhong shi xian. er wo men bu duan de zhen dui shi ji xi tong de wu li an quan lou dong wen ti de yan jiu zheng shi wei le zhe ge jue dui an quan xing bian de geng jia ke kao. gong ji, shi wei le rang liang zi mi ma geng jia an quan wu xie ke ji. xia zai APP yue du ben wen geng shen du bao dao

    

     (责任编辑:季丽亚 HN003)

当前文章:http://www.zjsincere.cn/xenk/248192-320076-42128.html

发布时间:06:00:36

高鹰生殖中心  游戏秘籍  思咖啡女性健康网  吉首新闻资讯网  钟祥新闻资讯网  拨片哈助孕公司  茅台酒价格  促排卵副作用  偶家游戏中心  厦门代孕  公版代怀孕网  

{相关文章}

俄罗斯助理总统:多年后,俄罗斯仍将是普京的国家俄罗斯普京的军队

    原名:俄罗斯助理总统:多年后,俄罗斯仍将中兴路1666号_高鹰生殖中心是普京的国家。俄罗斯思考自己的发展模式。编者按:俄罗斯独立报最近发表了俄罗斯前副总理兼现任助理总统苏尔科夫的一篇署名文章,题为“普京的长期国家”,副标题为“这是什么?”《环球时报》出版时被删节了。”我们有选择。这只是一种感觉。深圳顺丰快递查询_高鹰生殖中心”十五年前,这一声明最终jusewang_高鹰生殖中心成为新俄罗斯国家的第一条公理化法律,所有现实政治的理论和实践都植根于此。对于包括西方民主在内的整个西方生活方式来说,选择的幻想是一种花招。为了摒弃这种追求必然性的幻想,俄罗斯社会开始思考自己独特的、独立自南湖梦幻岛团购_高鹰生殖中心主的民主发展模式。从苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟的解体到俄罗斯联邦的情况,俄罗斯最终停止了其解体,开始恢复活力,恢复到其唯一可能的合法性状态,即领土日益强大和扩大的多民族团结。在全球历史上,我们国家被赋予的作用不容忽视。它不允许我们离开舞台,也不允许我们在龙争虎斗中保持沉默。它不允许我们长时间保持平稳。这注定是我们与众不同的特点。这反映在皇室公主三千金_高鹰生殖中心俄罗斯民族根基的连续性上,俄罗斯现在是一个从未经历过的新国家。它所经历的和仍在经历的压力测试表明,正是这种基本形成的政治制度模式,才是俄罗斯民族在未来几年、几十年乃至整个世纪生存和崛起的有效手段。俄罗斯在其历史上经历了四种主要的国家模式,这可能dsoso91_高鹰生殖中心是以其创建者命名的:伊万三世的国家(莫斯科和俄罗斯大公国,15-17世纪)、彼得大帝的国家(俄罗斯帝国,18-19世纪)、列宁的国家(苏联,20世纪)、普京的国家(俄罗斯联邦,21世纪)。用诗人古米利洛夫的话说,这些巨大的政治机器是由“意志坚定”的人创造的,他们依次改变,并不断自我修复和适应过程中的现实。一个世纪和下一个世纪确保了俄罗斯世界的持续和持久的进步。普京的政治机器刚刚加速,正在逐渐适应未来长期、困难和有意义的工作。要达到最大马力需要很长时间。因此,在许多年里,俄罗斯将仍然是普京的国家,正如法国仍然称自己为戴高乐第五共和国一样,今天的美国也将从半神明的“开国元勋”的形象和价值观中寻求力量。我们必须认识、理解和描述普京的统治体系以及普京学说的整体思想和维度体系,作为未来的意识形态。这真的属于未来,因为现在普京不一定是一个普京社会主义者,就像马克思不是一个马克思主义者一样,如果他知道发生了什么,他可能不会轻易认同这个身份。这需要为所有那些不是普京,但想要像他一样的人做。普京的学说不能用一种清晰的宣传风格来描述,即我们的语言或非我们的语言,以至于俄罗斯和反俄罗斯的官方意识形态都认为它是温和的异端。只有这样,语言才能被广泛的受众所接受。这是必要的,因为俄罗斯已经形成的政治体制不仅适用于自己的未来,而且显然具有巨大的出口潜力。需要它或它的组件。这一经验在许多国家,包括统治阶级和反对党,都得到了学习和部分学习,并被模仿。外国政治家将干预世界各地的选举和全民公决,并依靠俄罗斯。事实上,一切都更加严重。俄罗斯正在入侵他们的大脑。他们不知道如何处理他们改变的想法。上世纪90年代失败后,我们停止在意识形态领域借钱。相反,我们开始创造自己的自产思想,在新闻信息领域对西方发起反攻。结果,欧美的专家们在预测上犯了越来越多的错误,选民们对他们独特的支持偏好感到惊讶和愤怒。他们说,这是对民粹主义民主的侵略,他们感到恐慌。如果说得不好,可以这样说。当所有人都被全球化所迷惑,并主张世界扁平化和消除国界时,莫斯科明确提醒死者,主权和国家利益具有重大价值。21世纪已经实现

http://ailafei.cnhttp://nanlebang.cnhttp://dr-ginseng.cnhttp://www.jinhaiyaoye.cnhttp://www.meiliqiyi.cnhttp://www.bxzpwzd.cnhttp://www.mo-card.cnhttp://www.cjzbmex.cnhttp://www.ol82.cnhttp://www.haosuf.cnhttp://www.dayumm.cnhttp://www.gilrs.cnhttp://www.airfzl.cnhttp://www.jnjzs.cnhttp://www.nbxss.cnhttp://www.pypabx.cnhttp://www.kukuli.cnhttp://www.dtsia.cnhttp://www.qhqqm.cnhttp://www.qhwwz.cnhttp://www.qhqqf.cnhttp://www.schli.cnhttp://www.jatoa.cnhttp://www.ztcytz.cnhttp://www.zbjcdz.cnhttp://www.elstar.cnhttp://www.bnuqq.cnhttp://www.xyjun.cnhttp://www.thwhtn.cnhttp://www.hwmooc.cnhttp://www.whida.cnhttp://www.qhhdtv.cnhttp://www.moocq.cnhttp://www.yadeni.cnhttp://www.njhdy.cnhttp://www.lootee.cnhttp://www.qhnjt.cnhttp://www.qhqqj.cnhttp://www.qhwwk.cnhttp://www.qhbbd.cnhttp://www.qhtth.cnhttp://www.alidwy.cnhttp://www.abxe.cnhttp://www.abno.cnhttp://xcmdanlizhu.com/plus/images/2019032511341862704118.htmlhttp://xcmdanlizhu.com/plus/images/2019032511313292754329.htmlhttp://i-zx.cn/2019032511313215850073.htmlhttp://www.tcxy888.com/data/tag/2019032511084768522475.htmlhttp://www.sczqdl.com/2019032511312986915926.html